1.  If hoarseness is the concern, the teacher and parent can explain t the child that his/her voice may be hoarse because of over-use (e.g. shouting, yelling, using 'character' voices).  Together they can identify times and places where the over-use is occurring and work to reduce it.  The student should be complimented for using an appropriate voice.  A contract can often help to enlist student cooperation.  Teachers should work with parents, since vocal abuse also probably happens at home.

2.  If the student uses volume that is too loud or too quiet for the situation, explain the problem to the student and reinforce appropriate use of volume.  Again, a contract can be helpful.

3.  If the student's voice has noticeably too much nasality and this interferes with communication, teachers and parents can model words and sentences with an appropriate amount of nasality and ask the student to try letting the words come through the mouth and little more, rather than the nose.  Sometimes is can be helpful to have the student practice speaking with more open mouth movements.  This type of intervention should be done with sensitivity and care not to embarrass the student.  Remember, some variation in nasality is normal.  Nasality differences may be related to medical conditions such as allergies ro cleft palate.  Teachers are advised to get medical information from the parents and to discuss the voice differences with the parents before intervening.

4.  If a child uses an inappropriate pitch that interferes with communication, parents and teachers can explain, model and have the child practice talking at a more appropriate pitch. 

Prepared by S. Penner  11/1/93